Hypersensitivity Basic Concept

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Published at : 25 Jan 2021
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Hypersensitivity Basic Concept
The immune system is an integral part of human protection against disease, but the normally protective immune mechanisms can sometimes cause detrimental reactions in the host. Such reactions are known as hypersensitivity reactions, and the study of these is termed immunopathology. The traditional classification for hypersensitivity reactions is that of Gell and Coombs and is currently the most commonly known classification system. It divides the hypersensitivity reactions into the following 4 types:
Type I reactions (ie, immediate hypersensitivity reactions) involve immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils. Examples include anaphylaxis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.
Type II reactions (ie, cytotoxic hypersensitivity reactions) involve immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M antibodies bound to cell surface antigens, with subsequent complement fixation. An example is drug-induced hemolytic anemia.
Type III reactions (ie, immune-complex reactions) involve circulating antigen-antibody immune complexes that deposit in postcapillary venules, with subsequent complement fixation. An example is serum sickness.
Type IV reactions (ie, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, cell-mediated immunity) are mediated by T cells rather than by antibodies. An example is contact dermatitis from poison ivy or nickel allergy.
Mast CellsHypersensitivity ReactionInterleukins

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