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The renal arteries originate from the abdominal aorta and enter the renal hila to supply the kidneys. Any variant in arterial supply is important to clinicians undertaking surgery or other interventional renal procedures.
Arises from the abdominal aorta at the L1-2 vertebral body level, inferior to the origin of the superior mesenteric artery.
The right renal artery courses inferiorly and passes posterior to the IVC and the right renal vein to reach the renal hilum. The left renal artery is much shorter and arises slightly more inferior to the right main renal artery. Left renal artery courses more horizontally, posterior to the left renal vein to enter the renal hilum. Renal arteries are between 4-6 cm in length and usually 5-6 mm in diameter.
Each renal artery gives off small branches in its proximal course, prior to dividing into dorsal and ventral rami. These branches are very small and often not visualised on imaging studies:
The dorsal and ventral rami divide into segmental branches within the renal hilum before entering the parenchyma: apical, anterior superior, anterior inferior (middle), inferior and posterior segmental renal arteries. These then divide into lobar branches which successively branch into interlobar, arcuate and interlobular arteries. The afferent arterioles, which supply the glomeruli, originate from the interlobular arteries.
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