13. Addition to Form Three-Membered Rings: Carbenoids and Epoxidation

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Published at : 12 Dec 2020
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Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B)



After drill on the mechanism of the pinacol rearrangement, this lecture applies molecular-orbital analysis to simultaneous electrophilic/nucleophilic attack by a single atom to form a three-membered ring from an alkene. These reactions provide drill in consistent use of the curved-arrow formalism for describing electron-pair shifts. Two alternative mechanisms for formation of cyclopropanes by the alkylzinc Simmons-Smith "carbenoid" reagent are proposed, and the one-step mechanism is supported by theory. Epoxidation of alkenes by peroxycarboxylic acids also seems to go by way of a concerted electrophilic/nucleophilic process involving a single transition state. The stereochemistry and scale of various paths to epoxides is discussed in the context of their commercial utility.



00:00 - Chapter 1. The Pinacol Rearrangement Mechanism

04:36 - Chapter 2. Carbenoids and Simmons-Smith Cyclopropanation

17:56 - Chapter 3. Epoxidation by Peroxycarboxylic Acids

38:40 - Chapter 4. Other Routes to Epoxides

46:44 - Chapter 5. Practical Utility of Epoxides



Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://oyc.yale.edu



This course was recorded in Spring 2011.
pinacol rearrangementSimmons-Smith cyclopropanationcarbenoid

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